Our approach to teaching reading and writing
At Cliftonville Primary School, we use a fun, multi-sensory approach to developing children’s phonic knowledge. Throughout the school teachers use the ‘Letters and Sounds’ programme to systematically develop children’s phonic knowledge. Phonics is taught for twenty minutes daily in every class.
In the early stages of reading we use a range of books which are easy to decode using the children’s developing phonics knowledge. We do not use one particular reading scheme as we believe that children will become excellent readers by being exposed to a rich range of literature by fabulous authors and illustrators. These books are however banded by level of difficulty and children choose books from an appropriate selection.
Cliftonville Primary School aims for all children to read with confidence, fluency and understanding, have an interest in the written word, read for enjoyment and employ a range of independent strategies to self-monitor and correct. To achieve these aims, children are encouraged to read a wide range of texts and respond to different layers of meaning within them. Reading resources within school are varied to reflect literacy units, themes, current affairs and personal choice.
All pupils have daily opportunities for differentiated shared reading and independent reading. Guided reading (with the teacher and/or teaching assistant) takes place at least twice weekly. We provide a wide range of reading books, many of which are banded by level of difficulty. We employ the Accelerated Reader programme for all of our Key Stage 2 pupils and those children in Key Stage 1 who have reached the Gold level of book banding. Pupils and parents are actively supported and encouraged to enjoy home reading and extend children’s ‘reading miles’. Communication between home and school is via a reading record book.
We aim for all of our children to be able to write independently with confidence, fluency, accuracy and enjoyment. Here at Cliftonville School, we believe it is important that the children learn from an early age that much of their writing will be read by other people and therefore needs to be accurate, legible and set out in an appropriate way. It is of the utmost importance that the writing process be modelled by the teacher through shared writing and the children should take part in composing, spelling and handwriting activities within the class as a whole and as a member of the small group.
From early on in their learning journey, through exploring a range of genres, children start to enjoy writing and see the value of it. We provide opportunities for children to see adults writing and for children to experiment with writing for themselves through mark making, symbols and conventional script. Through oral rehearsal, children learn to communicate meaning in narrative and non-fiction texts and spell and punctuate correctly.
As they move through the school, children develop the understanding that writing is both essential to thinking and learning, and enjoyable in its own right. They learn the main rules and conventions of written English and start to explore how the English language can be used to express meaning in different ways. Children use the planning, drafting and editing process to improve their work and to sustain their fiction and non-fiction writing. Using powerful teaching strategies such as shared and guided writing children are exposed to high quality demonstration, exploration and discussion of the choices writers make enabling the children to eventually do this for themselves during independent writing.
We strongly believe in giving children first hand experiences to draw on information and emotions to enhance their learning and therefore draw on our local community. Trips to the local library, cinema, places of historical interest, the beach, park and theatre are essential for that engaging starting point to acquire real quality writing.
We use the Talk 4 Writing approach to teaching reading and writing. This enables children to imitate the key language they need for a particular topic orally before they try reading and analysing it. Through fun activities that help them rehearse the tune of the language they need, followed by shared writing to show them how to craft their writing, children are helped to write in the same style.
Talk for Writing
At Cliftonville School, we have started using Talk for Writing in order to support our children’s literacy skills. Talk for Writing was originally created by Pie Corbett and supported by Julia Strong and is powerful because it is based on the principles of how children learn.
Talk for Writing enables children to imitate the key language they need for a particular topic orally before they try reading it and analysing it. Through fun activities to help them rehearse the tune of the language they need, followed by shared writing to show them how to craft their genre, children are helped to write in the same style. Schools that have adopted this approach have not only shown a rise in the children’s progress but that both children and teachers alike love it. It works well right through from the Early Years up to year 6 and beyond.
Talk for Writing is powerful because it enables children to imitate the language they need for a particular topic orally before they begin reading and analysing it and then writing their own version. Pie Corbett gives a brief explanation below of the basic principles. It builds on three key stages:
Stage 1 – Imitation
Stage 2 – Innovation
Stage 3 - Independent Application
The Imitation Stage
Once the teacher has established a creative context and an engaging start (the hook), a typical T4W unit would begin with some engaging activities warming up the tune of the text to help children internalise the pattern of the language required. This is often followed by talking an exemplar text, supported visually by a text map and physical movements to help the children recall the story or non-fiction piece. In this way the children hear the text, say it for themselves and enjoy it before seeing it written down. Once they have internalised the language of the text, they are in a position to read the text and start to think about the ingredients that helps make it work. Understanding the structure of the text is easy if you use the boxing it up technique and then help the children to analyse the features that have helped to make the text work. In this way, the class starts to co-construct a toolkit for this type of text so they can talk about the ingredients themselves – a key stage in internalising the toolkit in their heads.
The Innovation Stage
Once the children have internalised the text, they are then ready to start innovating on the pattern of the text. This could begin with more advanced activities to warm up the key words and phrases of the type of text focused on so the children can magpie ideas. Younger children and less confident writers create their own text maps and orally rehearse what they want to say. The key activity in this stage is shared writing, helping the children to write their own by ‘doing one together’ first. This could begin with using a boxed up grid to show how to plan the text and turn the plan into writing. This allows the children to see how you can innovate on the exemplar text and select words and phrases that really work. Demonstrating how to regularly read your work aloud to see of it works is important here. This process enables the children to write their own versions through developing their inner judge when they start to decide why one word or phrase is best. If, during this process, a teaching assistant (or able Key Stage 2 child) flip charts up words and phrases suggested, these can be put on the washing line alongside the shared writing so when the children come to write they have models and words and phrases to support them. Throughout the shared writing, the children should be strengthening the toolkit so they start to understand the type of ingredients that may help. Once they have finished their own paragraph/s children should be encouraged to swap their writing with a response partner. Then with the aid of the visualiser, the whole class can also discuss some of the more successful work. Time now needs to be found to enable the children to give their own work a polish in the light of these discussions and perhaps to begin the dialogue about what works by writing their own comment on their work for the teacher to comment on.
The Invention/ Independent Application Stage
The teacher now has the opportunity to assess the children’s work and to adapt their planning in the light of what the children can actually do. This stage could begin with some activities focussed on helping the children understand aspects that they were having difficulty with and should include time for the children to have a go at altering their work in light of what they have just learnt so they start making progress. This stage will continue to focus on the next steps needed to support progress so the children can become independent speakers and writers of their text type. Perhaps some more examples of the text are compared followed by more shared writing on a related topic and then the children can have a go themselves on a related topic of their own choosing. At the end of the unit, the children’s work should be published or displayed. The teacher will now have a good picture of what features to focus on in the next unit to move the children forward. It is important to provide children with a purpose for their writing so classroom display or some sort of publishing is useful.
Although we are only in the first year of using the Talk for Writing process at Cliftonville Primary School we have already seen a huge improvement in the quality of the children’s writing across the school. This is evidenced at termly data collection weeks and Pupil Progress Meetings. However, the impact does not stop there. In our Year R classes, we have seen the most reluctant of speakers, begin to use known words and phrases from the story map she has been creating. In our Nursery, we have seen children create their own stories using simple picture cards as a prompt. The storytelling language embedded in their own everyday storytelling was amazing. Talk for Writing has also impacted positively upon oral storytelling across the school, building confidence and pride in children’s own work. We have now seen reluctant writers and children whose first language is not English have the confidence to write for themselves.
What children at Cliftonville Primary School and Nursery say about Talk for Writing
“Talk for Writing gives me ideas of what to write for myself. By drawing a story map I can imagine what is happening in my mind.” (Rhyss, year 3)
“Talk for Writing helps me know what to add into my writing to make it good. I can pinch great ideas to include into my own stories.” (Ellie, year 3)
“It was great when we followed the strange footprints around our school. We discovered dinosaur eggs at the end of the trail so decided the footprints had to be from a dinosaur. Then we read dinosaur stories and found out lots of information about them in books and on the internet.” (Brooke, year 1)
“Story maps put pictures in my mind to help me remember the story. Shared writing with my teacher helps me with my writing because it shows me what to do.” (Rhys, year 4)
What teachers at Cliftonville Primary School and Nursery say about Talk for Writing
“Both my children and I love creating the different actions to help us internalise the text. We really have benefitted from seeing the different parts of a text broken down into simple stages. The vocabulary the children are using has really improved since using Talk for Writing – the children feel confident to share their ideas.”
“Talk for Writing has impacted positively across the whole school. Through internalising the language used in the main text, the children’s language and vocabulary has developed hugely. They are starting to be confident to use these new words and phrases in their own writing. We have been able to use the Talk for Writing process within our topic sessions too.”